Saturday, September 3, 2011

Leopards in Kanha

The focus on tigers pushes this magnificent cat into the background. In most of the Indian tiger reserves leopards are not much sought after. They are treated as one of the inhabitants of the ecosystem. Very little work is done on these animals except at places where man eating menace exists.

Though much required, the attention only on the tiger is not a good policy. Consequent studies and research on both will assist in conservation of all big cats in he country. There are many common characteristic features in these carnivores, discovering facts related to one will lead to helping the other. 

Kanha is a large intact ecosystem that is home to the leopard besides the Bengal Tiger. The tigers presence puts the animal in a precarious situation - kind of nightmarish existence. This is the main reason for the leopard to turn nocturnal and making an arboreal existence. In Sri Lanka where the tiger is absent these cats exhibit diurnal behavior. 

In Kanha National Park the panther is more active in the periphery of the forests and the surrounding villages. Its range covers most of the buffer zone with some presence in the core area as well. Frequent incidence of livestock killing are those by leopards and surprisingly the animal has killed live stock bigger in size as was evident at Boda Chhapri Village.  But the core is noticeably dominated by the tigers. In a conflict with tiger the panther is killed and eaten without fail. Hence the spacing mechanism adopted by this animal is remarkable but nevertheless many of these cats are hunted down by tigers. The extent is not known in absence of reliable data but I presume the figure would be on the higher side.    

The competition for food is one reason for this lack of tolerance among these tertiary carnivores. The leopard cannot kill animals larger than female sambar deer, it definitely avoids large sized prey species. It's adaptability is more tenacious than that of the striped cat.  It can live on consuming small animals, birds, poultry, livestock, besides the prey available in the forests. This animal can also survive in broken ecosystems or denuded forests with little bit of day cover.

There are assumed to be around 70 leopards in Kanha Tiger Reserve in an area of 1940 sq km. But I believe that it is next to impossible to come to the correct conclusion since the animal moves in diverse habitats and is very elusive.  An extensive camera trapping can assist in this task besides keeping tab on livestock predation and records of sightings. 

In Kanha Zone a leopard was seen regularly last year near the Khatia Gate. One animal has been seen and photographed several times link road 7.  This animal is rarely seen in the grasslands of the reserve since these dominated by the much larger striped cousin. I have seen them near villages at night on Kanha Indri Road sulking in nullahs bushes in search of suitable livestock.   

The status of this animal is precarious all over with lot of killing by man wherever it survives. The number of hides being confiscated from poachers is suggestive of vary large numbers being killed in India. This is going to result in complete extermination of the animal from large part of its historical range. Man animal conflict and urbanization of denuded forest adds to the quick decrease in population.  

Sunday, August 14, 2011

Tiger Safari: Rates Kanha & Bandhavgarh

From the coming season the new vehicle entry rates will apply. The parks will open on 16th October as usual.

Kanha and Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve tourism zones have been changed and upgraded.

At Kanha the Kanha Zone is notified as premium and its charges are:

Rs.1500 for Indians and Rs.3000 for foreigners. Besides this guide fees filming fee etc will also apply.

Other zones are Mukki & Sarhi Gates.

At Bandhavgarh the vehicle entry fee is Rs.2000 for Indian and Rs. 4000 for foreigners. This is for Tala Zone which is premium.  

Other Zones are Panpatha, Khitauli and Magdhi Zones.

Jeep hire is extra for that contact manager of your accommodation in the tiger reserve.  

Access to zones may be from outside so leave in advance and be prepared to pay more for extra ride to reach the gates.  

Each Wednesday evening safaris are closed, so schedule village/school tours for this day evening. 

In the notification by forest department no tariff is given for non premium zones. Visit MP Online  for more information. There is vehicle restriction inside the park hence book your gate entry in advance. This can be done at MP Online. 

Saturday, July 23, 2011

Leopard Fights Back

The incidence at Siliguri village in Darjeeling  is one of the many warnings that the big cat is as threatened as the tiger. The leopard is in as precarious a condition as the tiger is. The animal was petrified in human surroundings and eventually died (killed). We have no solutions for man animal conflicts. 

The mishandling is and eye opener as to how the whole country faces a crisis. The administration and rulers of this country are enmeshed in attributes that help seek a way out rather than face the situation boldly. What were the policemen and forest guard doing there well fulfilling there duty. 

There was no solution from top level for an incident that is a regular occurrence. The immobilization should have been as fast as possible and proper. The big cat was on defensive strayed perhaps by some mental aberration or hunger into human habitation.  A precious life could have been saved. Yes big cats and all life forms constitute precious life. If any doubt please go back to Vedas.    

The human reaction to intrusion by other life forms will always be aggressive defense or offense - action wherein the animal always suffers. The cats are on brink of extinction thanks to our selfish approach and greed. It is not yet apparent that we should work in an ecosystem. The loss of other life forms does not create among us a loss at all. Somewhere down the line we will realize, how dependent we are on others. Our coming generation will have no solutions for the past misdeeds. They will only regret and curse.              

Sunday, June 12, 2011

Tiger Safari More Expensive

Though I am not citing a confirmed report, it is obvious that rates will go up.  I have heard from a hotelier in Bandhavgarh about increase in gate fee in all Central Indian Tiger Reserves. Since a long time the administration was intent on increasing gate fees and all related fee. How much increase is there is yet to be seen by the author.  

This is necessary as the cost have gone up as they are bound to. Even the jeep safari rates have gone up which is understood. The rates of petrol affect the transportation cost all over India hence the tiger reserve. 

Will this impact tourism in our tiger reserves?

Well yes and no!

The rich will continue to come here and enjoy their wildlife holidays in larger numbers. The tigers and their habitat receive tremendous publicity in wildlife magazines and TV. This diverts more and more people towards tiger tourism in India.

But the increasing cost of the tours will certainly affect middle class and those below. Major impact will be on the hotels and resorts since not all cater to the upscale tourists.  Most of the accommodation will be stressed out.

The negative aspect is that the nature should be witnessed by wide spectrum of the society. It is quite understood that visitors begin to understand nature from close and develop a more practical approach towards it and its conservation. A lot of Indian tourists who visit these preserves on budget are going to be deprived of this eye opening experience and miss out on this amazing inheritance.   This applies to budget travelers from foreign soils as well. The negative impact of increased safari cost will make tiger tourism appear to be a prerogative of the wealthy. This will certainly create antipathy toward these parks amongst the have not’s.    

For the school going children a park visit is a learning experience and is vital for them. These very kids will grow up with a positive attitude towards the environment and all other life forms.    

Some way has to be found out in order to invite less privileged people sans some privileges. Another answer is to open up more wildlife sanctuaries for tourism with proper infrastructure development. But are we very good with finding solutions to problems, take the case of tiger conservation in India.

Monday, May 23, 2011

Saving a Sanctuary

In a rare example women in Bangladesh at Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary have taken the cudgel to save their precious heritage. Along with the forest guards they patrol the confines of the forest a vital elephant corridor. The women adorned in green saree work as volunteer but do get an initial compensation. They have succeeded in the task of preventing illegal wood felling and poaching. This has resulted in the forest recuperating quickly to regain its lost splendour.

The forests after local conservation efforts have shown remarkable signs of regeneration. There is a rational approach to benefiting from the forest produce with sharing arrangement between the department and the locals. In instances like these the uses of natural resources becomes sustainable since the value system is based on conserving one's heritage. 

The women have shown an exemplary display of value system since very few realize the importance of natural ecosystem. Forest wealth have been plundered by outsiders while those dependent upon it have watched helplessly. Well not in this case. Read more:  Sentinels of the forest    

The scourge of humanity has depleted all natural ecosystems for personal consumption. This is happening everywhere in India since the locals have not been educated regarding these priceless jewels. Once people realize that conserving these ecosystems is good for their communities more such conservation efforts will come into picture. Involving local communities is safeguarding the heritage wealth is a sound principle that will increase preservation of forests and wildlife.      

Friday, May 13, 2011

MP Increasing tigers

The last tiger census showed an increase of tiger population. This was heartening but the increase was not impressive by any means. More over the Madhya Pradesh Forest Minister was not happy with the state figures.

The tigers have been declining in numbers in MP. The decline is more because the census methods have been improved. They are no longer at the mercy of whims and fantasy of the park authorities. Recounting exercise carried out by the state government showed a minor increase. But this was more and ego boosting exercise rather than a serious conjecture of what is happening.   

Panna was the first shocker and the falling numbers in other tigers reserve are suggestive of some major issues. What we should keep in mind is that ground situation may have gone worse. Disturbance in and around the reserves and incidence of poaching cannot be ruled out.

Hence a proactive corrective stance is needed more than the counting exercise. Tiger conservation is important if we wish to save this wonderful apex mammal. Much depends on how we perceive this importance and go all out to save the species. India still retains the largest population of the tigers in the wild. Let us get the ball rolling fetch and upswing scenario rather than the prevailing down slide.     

Sunday, April 24, 2011

Hunting Tigers

The most efficient hunting species became the most hunted. Ironically the animal lost since he stood no match for hunting prowess of man a superior species?? Since early days tiger hunting was a regular activity. The prehistoric man could have killed the tiger due to rivalry or for food. 

As human civilization progressed hunting became more advanced with metal weapons, snares, traps, spears, bow and arrows and what not. Gradually guns came into picture, this was catastrophic for forests all over the World. With this weaponry it was easy to kill tigers as well as other species. Guns wrecked havoc on wildlife and it lost lot of ground. 

Tiger hunting in later period was not just guns as it is an elusive animal. The Shikaris or hunters deployed varied methods in order to bring down this magnificent beast. The Maharajahs and British Aristocrats hunted tigers on elephant back. They also resorted to Haka where in a large number of drummers and noise makers exposed the big cat. The commotion brought out the cat from its hiding and was easily killed by waiting hunters. Another method deployed was baiting. A goat or a buffalo calf was tied to a tree in area frequented by big cats. A machaan or hideout on tree top was than built for the hunters so that they could wait for the tiger to arrive. The Baiga tribe of Madhya Pradesh would hang a tiger's kill midway on a horizontal pole. Difficult to grasp in order to reach the kill the animal would often fall on sharpened bamboo spikes. He would be injured seriously or die instantly.

For as little as fifty rupees one could get a license to shoot a tiger in a forest block in India. All these method succeeded in decimating tiger and leopard population in alarming proportion.  

Hunting is different from poaching. Since the legislation in 1971 hunting any wild life form is prohibited in India. It is banned as a sport though illegal hunting does go on here and there. The global wildlife trade increased to dangerous levels by demand for tiger bones in Chinese medicine and exotic pet lovers who keep wild animals, butterflies and birds in their homes. Thousands perhaps millions of birds and butterflies are being caged in order to fulfill a sickening desire for a wild pet or stuffed specimens at home.

Poaching is more deadly it is a gruesome face of merciless hunters and traders who would do anything for money. They resort to utmost cruel methods of killing big cats. Traps, snares, poison, guns, spears all are painful killers. Most of the poachers like Bel Pardhis of Madhya Pradesh are  hunter gatherers and hence expert in the job.    

Though it is illegal to kill tigers in India many instances have occurred right under the administration's nose. Panna and Sariska are an example. Poaching could be occurring still in reserves where patrolling and surveillance is weak. Man animal conflict is another big problem specially when cattle lifting happens. The animal faces ire of the locals and the prey is poisoned. The death of tigers and leopards are very painful and torturous in such circumstances.

We can contribute by discouraging medicine or cosmetics made of animal parts. We should shun all those who keep exotic animals as pets without conservation cause.

Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Wild Images Galore

Male Tiger
Tiger cubs
Tiger with kill

Sambar in Misty Morning

It is amazing just when you start to think it is a professional job...from out of the blue a photo shooter arises. I came across these wonderful, some soulful images by Mr. Kamaljeet Hora of Raipur. He is by

Indian Roller
Crested Hawk Eagle
Bengal tiger cub
Brown Fish Owl
Tiger Walk
profession a business men and not a wildlife photographer. But it seems, he excels in whatever he does, such is his enthusiasm and commitment. An image speaks thousand words.

Friday, March 25, 2011

Elephants in Tiger Reserve

Shiva was touching eleven feet and weighed perhaps five tons whence it killed two people in Kanha. This was perhaps first such tragic incidence in the National Park. The elephant was in aggressive state of musth whence it mahout was transferred to control wild elephants in Sarguja District.

Elephants play a major role in tiger reserves of India. Ecologically they are destructive in reserves which are not natural elephant habitat. Bandhavgarh Gate is the best example of how these pachyderm have ravaged the forests.There is no historical record of these animals in the wilds of Madhya Pradesh. In such places they should be fed more and should not be allowed to forage in the forests extensively.

Anyway their role in tiger reserves is help patrol and protect from poachers. They are the prime attraction during the safaris whence the parks are open. Tiger show - much criticized in the past- is the best method to show tourists the magnificent animal in the wild.

Elephants are captured in Eastern and Southern India using various methods. They are then sold to buyers and are trained by elephant riders or mahouts. This might be not legal now. The training starts right from the young age. At Bandhavgarh I have experienced a young male being trained by the mahout it is a grilling exercise but definitely not cruel. Incidentally I was there whence a calf was born at the reserve. It was for the first time in the history of the tiger reserves that a birth had taken place in captivity.

Elephants in Central Indian tiger reserves are a prominent feature. In tiger show the tiger is traced by the elephants and mahouts and then cordoned. The tourist than ride on the elephant back up to the spot and brought back. It is a short ride but fulfills many a dream of sighting tiger in the wild as well as sitting on the huge beast. The most interesting part is how the huge beast traverses through dense forests engaged in active conversation with its rider.

Most of the preserves have six to eight tame elephants which provide yeomen services. The pachyderms though tame have a wild instinct in them for ever. They are like family members of the mahout for lifelong. There is a strong bond between the animal and its rider. It is an intelligent animal and very useful.

Monday, March 21, 2011

Bandhavgarh Then & Now

I saw my first male tiger in Bandhavgarh National Park in the seventies. The place was called Kill Khunta, since a bait was usually tied there to attract tigers. The baiting practice was thankfully stopped but the tigers do not go hungry at all. In that dusky twilight I could see one of the nature's marvelous creation. The awe and admiration has never ceased since.

Back from from the brink of disaster, the little paradise was not throbbing with tigers as conservation practice had just been put in place. The aftermath of reckless hunting had come to a stop and recovery was on the way. Though isolated and fragmented, the reserve retained its glorious ancient past and amazing Sal forests.

There where few visitors, and the accommodation was limited to the Maharani's Kothi for the privileged and the Forest/PWD R.H - rest house.

Eventually MPTDC stepped in and established the White Tiger Lodge. Then more tourists started to arrive with propaganda so created. The tourism infrastructure had been put in place with number of elephants for rides. The jungle roads were being maintained. This was the hunting reserve of erstwhile Maharajas of Rewa. It was the largest Kingdom in India during post independence period.

The discovery of white tiger in the adjacent forests had already opened the flood gates of popularity. Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve is situated in the Central Indian State of Madhya Pradesh. It is one of the finest places to see the tiger in the wild. The preserve is one of the most picturesque destination - little tiger haven tucked away in the deep recess of India's wild heartland. Under the project tiger the area covered is about 1100 including neighboring Pan Patha Wildlife Sanctuary. The core now constitutes 600 plus as against 145 or so earlier.

On our earlier visits we could count around 60 plus heads of gaur or Indian Bison. Gradually we saw the numbers dwindle till the end came somewhere in nineties. This was a major blow to the habitat, the loss of a coarse grazer was irreparable. Rinderpest & FPL was the scourge carried by maddening numbers of live stock in the periphery. Though some gaur have been relocated from Kanha recently, we have to wait for success.

It was obvious from the sightings that the prey base was increasing. The sightings also confirmed that big cats in the park were on the increase. In few years the reserve was a conservation success - it still is.

Another noticeable fact was the increasing number of tourist as well as the hotel resorts. The park became number one tourist draw thanks to high density of tigers. The core area of the park is the finest habitat of the cats. Due to the slush and grass in swampy marshy areas hunting was easy.

The village relocation had taken place from within the core and some were due which eventually did not happen - Kalwa & Magdi. The edaphic grasslands left by the tribal communities inside were overtaken by the prey base. This was like bounty from heaven since the grass was much wanted fodder for the deer and the bison.


The remains of ancient civilizations added luster to the splendorous jungle resort. The ancient man made caves still exist with petroglyph and Brahmi script on the walls. The forests experienced many warring civilizations throughout, as history unfolded. The dynasties left their marks on the ruins which are now ruled thankfully by the big cats. The place since evolution belonged to the wild denizens later intruded by humans.

The ancient ruins add esoteric touch to the wildlife haven. Sesh Shaiyya on the way to Bandhavgarh Hillock is right out of the fairy tale. Its pristine surroundings and springs are in reality best described as fairy tale settings. The reclining statue of Lord Vishnu besides the pond makes it a place of religious importance for the locals.

On the way up are the number zoomorphic statues of Lord Visnu some towering. Matsya Avatar - Varah Avatar and so on. The Laxman Temple sits atop the hill facing the beautiful grasslands valleys and neighboring mountains. Picturesque indeed! The Bandhavgarh Hill is steep and about 800m MSL. the hillock are ideal breeding ground for Long Billed Vulture.

Bandhavgarh Fort at the top lies in ruins arch, man made reservoir, statues and temple remains are littered all over. The remains boast of exquisite and colorful sculptural practice & art of ancient India. They are an archeological find dating back two thousand years in the recess of this old country.

The plateau is extensive and give one an eerie feeling a spread of ruined civilization, tall grasslands and a haunting specter of open spaces, mystical and esoteric as of the pristine wild country. The alarm cry or the tiger roar can be unnerving as I have experienced often.

Priest & Tiger

The Old Brahmin Pujari was a legendary figure. He walked about 11 km to the Laxman Temple, under care of his family, since the Maharajas ordained. He must have been the most familiar figure for the tigers that walked aside him. He once told me that his meetings with tigers were often and it was you go your way and I go my way affair, strictly. He died a natural death and I believe his son has taken over.

Hills Glens & Rivers

Mahaman, Chur Bohera, Raj Bohera, Bathan are well preserved grasslands. There rivers criss cross Johilla, Charanganga and Umrar. Must visit for tiger sightings and landscape are Badi Gufa, Ghoda Damen, 10 No.GUFA and Andheri Jhiriya. The terrain is torturous and at places very steep. The safari is exciting over steep climbs, across grasslands and river beds the cliff tower over you all the time.


The abundance of SAL is evident but the park encompasses some of the finest bamboo slopes and mixed forests. The canopy is dense but withers as one moves along the periphery due to wood logging in the buffer.


Once a large contiguous tract of forest the park is now isolated. Neighboring forests are Pan Patha, Gunghuti and the Sihora Forest ranges at some distance. the forests leading to Amarkantak and Achanakmar belt have been badly denuded hence there is no migration path for any species. All around the reserve forest are in a bad state and hence tiger habitat has been reduced. There are village surrounding the buffer and within with a large number of livestock. Except tourism alternative means of survival have not been explored.

Tiger Safari

Tourism in tiger reserves of Central India is monitored and well managed. I have seen tiger tourism grow from infancy and simultaneously the wildlife has increased as well. Tourism has benefited local communities which were until then dependent upon infertile lands. The need for accommodation has brought in many hotels. The established hotels of Bandhavgarh employ large number of youth. Most of these are from the local communities. Many get employment in the forest department as guides, chara cutters, guards and naturalists etc. Plus the park is a nature library many tourists come and go with greater understanding of nature, admiration for other life forms and desire to conserve or valuable heritage.

The Tiger

It has been one hell of a journey for the beleaguered animal. It has been ignominiously pushed back to small pockets along with associates. We have never ceased to destroy nature, we have overpowered other life forms and taken their land away. The majestic cat is silent and helpless observer as the axe continues to ravage his kingdoms all over the country.

Thursday, February 24, 2011

Grasslands larger than life

The Meadows

Unique feature of the tiger reserves of Central India are the grasslands that lie interspersed between rugged mountains and enchanting valleys. Also known as boheras in Bandhavgarh and maidan in Kanha these are hub of activities in the ecosystem.

The grasslands or meadows are the center of attraction for man animals and birds alike. The tourist flock these meadows in order to see the tiger and the deer. Since the thick canopy obstructs wildlife sighting the tourist jeeps prefer to move around the grasslands in order to see the tigers.

Tigers love the tall grasses of the prairies and sulk in between to ambush prey. They love the cover of the tall grass and the shade. In Bandhavgarh tiger reserve the Boheras are marshy and have proven to be excellent hunting grounds for the tigers. The slush hinders fast movement of the deer and the big cats find it easy to pounce upon them.

In Kanha the meadows besides supporting the tigers are home to critically endangered Swamp Deer. This is the only hard ground Barasingha population left in the wild. The deer now survives in good enough numbers after it was brought back from brink of extinction. The swamp deer subsists only on certain species of grass and poses conservation challenge to park authorities.

The grasses are frequented not only by tigers and deer they are home to many species of birds and reptiles. With luck one can see the reticulated python or other snakes. Most often seen grass birds are plain prinia, jungle prinia, zitting cisticola, warblers, common stonechat, pipits and larks, francolins painted and grey, munias or avadavat, storks and many others.

In order to stalk prey tigers frequent these grassy maidans. Since the concentration of deer is very high hunting is much easier. In the open spaces movement is not hampered like in thick canopy. They are easily camouflaged in the dry grass and can hide easily. Hence spotting tigers in grasslands is not as easy as people presume.

The most popular grasslands in Bandhavgarh are Chur Bohera, Raj bohera, bathan and chakradhara. Similarly the Kanha meadow is most popular, preferred by animals and tourists alike. Others are Saunf meadow where Swamp Deer breed, Kisli meadow and Parsa tola to name a few.

Most of the grasslands are small in area whence compared with Dhikala Chuad in Corbett Tiger Reserve. The height is much less than elephant grass. Most of the grasslands in Central Indian Tiger Reserves in MP are edaphic. They were earlier settlements which have been trans located elsewhere. The vacated fields have been overtaken by local species of grass and secondary scrub.

The savannas are always under threat from fire and over grazing. Thankfully live stock is not allowed inside the core area and the park authorities are constantly guarding the habitats from fires. The predators maintain the right population of deer hence prevent overgrazing. A major challenge being faced by conservation team in Kanha emanates from the lendia tree. This tree is slowly encroaching into the grasslands and reducing them. The swamp deer depend entirely on these ecosystems hence to stop the encroachment or leave nature to take care of things is a difficult decision to be taken.

Besides habitats of many species in these National Parks the savannas are vital to the ecosystem. They constitute major support system to these diverse habitats and have tremendous water retention capacity.

Thursday, January 27, 2011

Bison Translocation - New Dimension in Conservation

The recent ongoing trans location of Bison or Gaur from Kanha to Bandhavgarh TR accords a new dimension to wildlife conservation in India. Earlier the trans location of the Swamp Deer from Kanha to Bandhavgarh had failed miserably. It resulted in the death of all the Swamp Deer being trans located.

It was not only tragic but a great loss as well since the swamp deer or Hard Ground Barasingha is a highly endangered sub species found only in Kanha. The swamp deer were being translocated to Bandhavgarh a habitat which holds no historical record or evidence of swamp deer ever present there. But that was way back.

With induction of new technologies and technique the Bison trans location to Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve would be more successful. Nature conservation in India is in a piteous state in spite of the country making long strides in every field. Whatever is said, nature is accorded a low priority here.

The conservation impetus thrives due to few individuals, NGO and some dedicated and committed officials who go unsung. The required political will is not there though there are exceptions.

The trans location of Bison is going to be a major challenge since the stock being translocated is not familiar with the terrain. The Bison in India are local migratory species and the migration pattern is strongly ingrained in the genes. The only hope is that the population was once interconnected before habitat destruction took place. This would mean presence of genetic traits which will help the coarse grazer to migrate to suitable pockets as seasons change.

But the challenge will remain, the threat from foot and mouth disease, rinderpest is for real. Until unless proper inoculation of live stock in the buffers takes place the whole exercise will be futile. I strongly believe that the local extinction of this bovine was due disease. There is no palpable reason why the stock would migrate to another habitat leaving the present habitat which is well conserved.

Another plus point is that both the tiger reserves are similar in habitat or forest types, though topography may differ. Bandhavgarh was the last and only strong hold of Gaur North of Narmada River. If the success takes place than the tragic local extinction would fade into history.

Though prevention is better than cure no one minds re-establishment of locally rare species. This is the case with Panna and Sariska as well. Spreading of rare genetic stocks in suitable habitats augurs greater survival chance.

Alarms bells should sound in case of Gir Lions a population enclosed in one habitat. An epidemic like FPL can wipe the whole population. Donating a pride to Palpur Kuno would mean one step forward in conservation. This in case of highly isolated lion population and only sub species in the World - Asiatic Lion.